Step 1 - Cleansers

An ideal cleanser should remove impurities, make-up, excessive oil and dead skin cells without damaging the skin.

For acne prone skin, Use an exfoliating daily wash, such as a salicylic wash. Exfoliating products that sloughs away the dead surface skin, to help prevent grease glands clogging. Reducing inflammation, decreasing bacteria and preventing new acne eruptions.

For normal skin types I would go for the very popular Jan marini bioglycolic cleanser, it is a gentle cleanser which contains glycolic acid. This resurfacing product encourages a soft, smoother and more refined skin texture.

For a drier skin type a cream cleanser is needed preferably with a moisturising formula to gently cleanse the skin and leave it smoothly textured. Medik8 cream cleanse .Priori Advanced AHA gentle cleanser contains a Lactic acid (exfoliation, moisturising, & anti-aging) Lactic Acid is ideal for those with dry, slightly sensitive, dull skin, lack of suppleness, uneven pigmentation and fine lines and wrinkles.

For sensitive skin a non- irritating moisturising, fragrance free, non-allergenic and emollient containing cleanser is recommended. I like using PHA Neostrata cleanser that uses a mild yet effective cleanser that moisturises while it gently exfoliates the skin without striping essential oils, in combination with botanical extracts, which have proven anti-inflammatory, soothing and moisturising properties. Recommended products: Agera Ultra Mild Cleanser & skinCeuticals gentle cleanser.

 For all skin types I would recommend hydropeptide cleansing gel, which combines mild exfoliating agents with numerous peptides that help reduce wrinkles and fine lines.

 

 

Step2- Antioxidant treatment

Antioxidants are chemicals produced naturally that can help to prevent and repair damage to your body's tissue. There are many factors that can affect your skin in harmful ways. Elements such as air pollution, cigarette smoke and sunshine are culprits that act against the skin by damaging it. Antioxidants help by slowing or preventing the effect of these free radicals, which start oxidation -- a process that causes damage from oxygen that can lead to cell dysfunction. If you've seen a peeled apple turn brown, you've seen oxidation in action. As antioxidants block the effects of free radicals, they end up being oxidized. This is why it's important to constantly replenish your supply of antioxidants. In addition to helping fortify cells against free radicals, antioxidants also encourage cell and tissue growth, by helping to produce Collagen helping to fight fine lines and wrinkles.

Otherwise, you get premature aging, a compromised immune system leading to higher risk for certain diseases, hyperpigmentation, and loss of skin elasticity.

Topical Vitamin C the most popular antioxidant.

It is crucial for collagen production, which is destroyed by oxidative stress. Taking a pill isn't the answer either, topical application is needed. The body limits the amount of orally ingested antioxidants able to benefit the skin. There are many products to pick from. Yet, when formulated properly as SkinCeuticals products are vitamin C can be delivered to the skin at 40 times the levels achieved orally.

And vitamin E is crucial too as the body's most important fat-soluble antioxidant. It’s a very important vitamin to repair damaged tissue and to reduce the size of scars. Vitamin E is a biological protector particularly against cell membrane damage. Although Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant by itself, its effects are amplified when it works together with other antioxidants, such as Vitamin C.

Additonally, Vitamin E is a good protector against UV radiation. Providing the skin with vitamins has a positive effect in the reduction of erythema (swelling) and skin sensitivity after UV exposure or sunburn. Vitamin E is a great source of antioxidant protection for the body, acting as the first defense line against oxidative injuries.

Just being careful outdoors doesn't solve the whole problem of skin protection, unfortunately, due to indoor photodamage. Many people are not aware that UVA rays, unlike UVB, can penetrate glass exposing the skin to detrimental photo-aging at all times. So it is an issue indoors or out, especially if you have one of those really nice corner offices with lots of windows, a great sun room or spend a lot of time in your car. 

Skinceuticals have combined vitamin c , e and ferulic acid along side sodium hyaluronate in one formulation. Hyaluronic acid to capable of attracting and retaining 1,000 times  its own weight in water; it also assists as a carrier for other agents to be delivered below the skins surface. This is one of the best antioxidants available. According to studies it has been shown that the c e ferulic serum delivers up to 90% of anti-oxidant protection , 8x photoprotection and 96% sunburn cell reduction providing superior anti-ageing benefits. Another skinceuticals serum is the Phloretin C F, which works better on younger, oiler and pigmented skins. Phloretin C F prevents thymine dimmers, DNA mutations and protects against the range of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the skin.  Phloretin CF comes as a gel or serum. They both provide the same broad-range efficacy. skinceuticals serum 10 is ideal for sensitive skin or first time uses of antioxidants.

Medik8 C E Tetra contains 7% Tetrahexyldecyl  Ascorbate, an oil soluble vitamin C ester, plus synergistic d-alpha (natural) Vitaimn E.

PRIORI Idebenone superceuticals is another potent antioxidant with the key ingredients idebenone. For correction & prevention of premature aging due to both external and internal oxidative stress.

For antioxidant for acne/oily skin I would recommend medik8 aox gel, which is a non comedogenic, oil and fragrance free formula making it suitable for problematic, oily and combination skin.

Other recommentations –  Jan Marini C-esta serum & ZENMED - L-Ascorbic Booster Serum 

 

 Step 3 – Correct

Retinol

Vitamin A should be a very important part of night skincare as it improves skin texture and helps with rejuventation. It treats a variety of skin problems including acne, acne scarring, sun damage, hyperpigmentation  and wrinkles. The retinoids used in cosmeceuticals are the alcohol and ester forms of retinoic acid ( retinol, retinyl acetate, retinyl palmitate) and less irritating effect than prescription retinoic acid.

Benefits:

- Stimulates epidermal turnover through increased mitosis, replacing damaged cells with new cells and reducing melanin production.

-  Stimulates collagen and elastin fibre production slowing down thinning of the skin

-   Increase blood flow in the dermis

-    Reduces collagen breakdown

-     Suitable for all skin types

I would recommend skinceuticals retinol creams & Jan Marini Retinol Plus. For sensitive skin types try Medik8 Retinol 3 TR™ Night Serum. An alternative to retinol products particularly in those cases where retinoic acid causes skin hypersensitivity and irritation. Skinceuticals retexturing activator which provides mild exfoliation by reinforcing and hydrating the skin’s barrier whilst resurfacing the skin and leaving it smother.

Hyperpigmentation

For hyperpigmentation I would recommend skinceuticals Advanced pigment corrector which brightens and refines the uneven appearance of photodamaged skin. Other recommended products for correction of pigmentation and photodamaged skin  include Dermaceutic yellow cream and Medik8 White Balance click.

Acne

For acne prone skin I would recommend the Blemish and Age range from Skinceuticals or Jan Marini Bioclear , which consists of salicylic acid and glycolic acid to remove impurities, decongests pores and resurfaces. Also dioic acid and azelaic acid helps clear blemishes, while reducing redness, chronic inflammation and associated hyperpigmentation.  Another good anti-acne product is the medik8 betagel. The gel contains azelaic acid, salicylic acid and niacinamide  (also known as vitamin B3) and can be used on all skin types. The medik8 beta range of products come in a kit.

Redness

For skin redness secondary to sun exposure, acne, rosacea or cosmetic procedures (peels,microdermabrasion) I recommend skinCeuticals Redness Neutralizer which contains a proprietary bioactive ingredient that address visible redness. For skin hypersensitivity medik8 red serum provides intensive, calming relief for redness and flare-ups caused by skin hypersensitivity.

Other anti-aging ingredients peptides, copper peptides, growth factors

In addition to retinoids, antioxidants and AHA’s, peptides show efficacy in preventing and treating premature skin aging.

Functions of peptides in skin care can include:

- Stimulating collagen

- Promoting glycosaminoglycan synthesis

-Stimulating capillary formation and repair

- Enhancing natural antioxidant defense mechanisms.

Hydropeptide range contains High concentrations of Peptides in their skincare products.

 

Copper Peptide is an exciting new ingredient used to prevent and treat the signs of aging.

Copper plays a vital role in skin health, by helping restore the skin's ability to repair itself. Copper also has an antioxidant effect, preventing free radical damage that causes aging. Copper is a powerful collagen and elastin provider and it firms and increases the density of the skin.

Clinical studies have demonstrated the many benefits of GHK Copper Peptide Complex including decreased skin blotchness, decreased fine lines and wrinkles and an increase in skin firmness and tone. Neova is the first clinical skin care company to bring real innovation to the photo aging category by introducing Copper Peptide Complex technology products.

 

Topical growth factors are the latest trend in skin care.

Growth factors when applied topically to aging skin they can speed cell turnover, increase skin thickness, and restore luminosity. Growth factors  can stimulate stem cells to damaged areas to reproduce and provide the necessary boost to repair the damaged cells, which results in new tissue and a decrease in the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

Eyes

Infra-orbital shadows or “dark circles” under the eye area caused by an accumulation of haemoglobin and coloured degradation products (bilirubin and iron) in the dermis and epidermis. Products that contain Haloxyl are effective in the treatment of dark circle. Haloxyl is a well established anti-aging formula that contains a variety of ingredients including N-Hydroxysuccinimide, Chrysin and Glyerin. Chrysin stimulates the enzyme (UGT1A1) leading to the clearance of bilirubin.N-Hydroxysuccinimide makes the iron soluble, allowing it to be eliminated. Haloxyl also conatins Tetrapeptide , which suppresses the body’s production of interleukins, particularly IL6 , the chemical messengers that trigger the body’s acute inflammatory response. Like DHEA Tetrapeptide may help restore cytokine balance. Finally Glycerin actively hydrates and reduces transepidermal moisture loss in the sensitive area around the eyes.

Product which contain Haloxyl :HydroPeptide Eye - Anti-Wrinkle Dark Circle Concentrate

A popular eye product to treat Dark circles is the Jan Marini Luminate eye Gel.

Skinceuticals A.G.E Eye  For puffy, tired eyes and under eye bags 

Neostrata Skin Active Intensive Eye Therapy Target crow's feet and puffiness.

Corrects the signs of aging and also offers  protection:

Priori Idebenone Superceuticals® Eye Serum & Skinceuticals AOX+ EYE Gel

Step 4 – Moisturise

The most effective moisturising formulaes should combine moisture binding agents (hyaluronic acid,panthenol)  with mild exfoliating agents which help the skin get rid of the dead cells, allow young cells to surface, and enhance the penetration of the moisturiser.

Recommend products:

Jan Marini Transformation creamHelps rebulid and repair damaged skin cells.

Skinceuticals hydrating B5 combines hyaluronic acid & panthenol.

Priori Idebenone Superceuticals® Moisturising Cream and Priori Advanced AHA Barrier Repair Complex have an combination of antioxidants and lactic acid to provide superior anti-ageing skin benefits.

Step5 – Protect

Ultraviolet radiation is composed of three wavelengths: UVA, UVB and UVC.  UVA is long wavelength (320-400 nm) UV and accounts for up to 95 percent of the solar UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface. It can penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin and has for years been thought to play a major part in skin aging and wrinkling. UVA rays are present during all daylight hours and throughout the winter months. UVB is the middle-range of UV with wavelengths between 290-320 nm. It responsible for burning, tanning, acceleration of skin aging and plays a very key role in the development of skin cancer. UVC  is the shortest and highest energy UV with wavelengths less than 290 nm. However, since it is filtered by the ozone, these wavelengths do not reach the earth's surface and do not contribute to skin damage in humans.

The most important issue to understand about an SPF rating is that it mainly indicates relative protection from erythema produced by UVB. In order to get adequate protection against both UVA and UVB, you should select a sunscreen that provides broad-spectrum protection or UVA/UVB protection .

Use of sunscreens for skin photoprotection prevents the penetration of harmful UV rays into skin and should be part of everyone’s daily skincare regimes.

Recommended sunscreens:

skinceuticals, Heliocare , Jan Marini

Antioxidants exert protective effects from inside skin and because they stimulate cellular defence mechanisms, remain active for several days. Since sunscreens and antioxidants work by different mechanisms , they should be used as complimentary to each other.